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Nos. I. to VII.—1853.

“¢1t will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men of science, in different parts of Asia, will commit their observatons to writing, and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish if such communications shall be long imtermitted ; and it will die away if theyshall @nfirely cease.”—Siz Wm. Jonzs,


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| Page Abi Ma or Amoo or Oxus, Notes on the Sources of the, extracted ' from-the Journal of Mr. Gardiner, by M. P. Edgeworth, Esq.

eC: 5. ' . 431 Barometric Waves in a se Onolone, iGesmtetncal Misastirarhaut of he

distance from Crest to Crest of. By Henry Piddington, President

Marine Court, (if Central Asia, Abstract of aJ weanal kept wa Mr. Cdeatior deci

his travels, with a Note and Introduction, by M. P. Edgeworth,

Esq. B.C. 8. ue ote be 2. «283 Catalogues of Oriental ieateahiev By A. Sprenger, Esq. M. D. Se-

eretary Asiatic Society, ate a He se ©6885 Caucasian and Mongolian Affinities. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. OG Hindustani Poetry, Early. By A. Sprenger, Esq. M. D. Secretary

Asiatic Society, .. o. .. 442 Hircine, Supplementary N tidee on the New NEMeHA Rosin. By

Henry Piddington, Curator Museum Economic Geology, 279 Irrawaddy, Note on the discharge of Water by the. By J. McClel-

land; Esq. F. L. S. Commissioner of Forests, Rangoon, »- 480 Indo-Chinese Borderers and their connection with the Himalayans

and Tibetans. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. B. C. S. 1 Inscription from Thaneswar, Note on an. By Babu Biventivaldl

Mittra, x 4 rer Ona Iron Mines of the Ranigunj District, Memorandum on the prospect ' of remuneration in working the. By Major W. E. Baker, Con-

sulting Engineer to the Government of India, with a report on - the same subject by Professor Oldham, .. 5A 484 Jugloo and Seesee rivers in Upper Assam, Account of a visit to.

_ By Capt. T. E. Dalton, together with a note on the Gold Fields of

that Province, by Major Hannay, : 511 Khorasan, Ibn Huokul’s Account of. Bianststed by Minto W. Awe

derson, Bengal Artillery, 152 Kansonapuri, now called Ba re The Ancient City of. By

Capt. F. P. Layard, hg, en BO Literary Intelligence . 433, 491 Laterite found near aieubas Hotsnvs on ihe subject of By Capt.

_ C. B. Young, Bengal Engineer, net 96 Mahabalipuram, Notes on the Ruins at. By C. Ganbiny. Hisq. :...' ‘656

iv Index.


Maunkyala, Notes on the ruins of. By er James Abbott, Boun- dary Commissioner, Punjab, ' aa ae Mohzarkhala in the Kohistan of. the Westark Hazara, Description of, extracted from the Journal of Mr. R. ‘Gardiner. By M. P. Edg- worth, Esq. B. C. 8. : i Meteorological Observation, ligiebe act of ie Rastilts of ile Hiegrly: taken at the Surveyor General’s Office, Calcutta, in the month of January, 1853,.. .. Lae -—_———. February, ‘Mae oh April dl May, 1853, bie

June to November 1853, Register kept at the Field Hospital, Rangoon, for Oct. 1852,

———_—————. November and December, 1852, ae ati ——_—_——_—_——. January, 1853, ‘i : ——_—_———. February and March, 1353, ne ae April, 1853, _... ee as a at the Surveyor General’s Office, Calcutta, fas November and December, 1852, et iy at the Office to the Secretary to Cirerarnenis N. W. P. Agra, for July, August, September and October, 1852, ie ——_—_-—————- November, December, 1852, and January, 1853, .. ——— February and March, 1853, sie oe April to October, 1853, ar oe . Orang utan, Remarks on the different species of. By E. Blyth, Esq. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for January, 1853, ve a February and ‘aah: 1853, .. Apr, Op te ———_—_— —_—_—_ ——__———_———- May and June, .. ale ——— ——__——. July and August, ve ————__—_——_—_—_ ————- September and October, a —————— —_—___—__- -—__-—- ——_————. November and December, .. Reptiles inhabiting the Peninsula of India, Catalogue of. By T. C. Jerdon, Esq. Madras Medical Service, a sale 462, Reptiles, new or little known. Notices and Descriptions of various. By E. Blyth, Esq... ‘ie oe Statistics of Bengal, Gonbehugen iG the. Income, Bzpendituea and Food. By J. R. Bedford, Esq. Bengal Medical Staff, a

Sculpture in Alto-relievo sent by the Governor-General to the Asiatic Society, Notes on the. With a drawing. By Welby Jackson, Esq. Vice President, Asiatic Society, : a6

Sikkim Himalayah Mountains, Notes upon a Tos in oo undertaken for the purpose of ascertaining the Geological Formation of Kunchinjinga and of the perpetually snow-covered peaks in its vicinity. By Walter Stanhope Sherwill, Revenue Surveyor, 540,





Index. Vv

Salt’ Range in the Punjab, Report on the Geological Structure and Mineral Wealth of the. By Andrew Fleming, M. D. Edin. As- sistant Surgeon, 4th Regiment, Punjab Cavalry, in the charge of

‘the Geological Survey, 1851-52, © hig wid 229, 333, 444

Sifan and Horsok Vocabularies with another special exposition in

the wide range of Mongolian affinities and remarks on the lingual and physical characteristics of the Family. By B. H. Hodgson,.. 121

Tabary, The first volume of the poviginal Text of. By Dr. A. aa rs ee oe oe te wap 195


. a | _ . Page Abbot, J. Major, Boundary Commission, Punjab. Notes on the

' ruins of Maunkyala, wert, O40 Anderson, W. Major, Bengal Netiltoige Ts usin Account of

Khorasan, RPS Fone 5)"

Baker, W. E. Warori @anisaltiie Bivtetnica £6 the Guvantinient of In- dia, Memorandum on the prospect in working the Iron Mines of the Ranigunj District, with a report on the same subject, by Professor Oldham, Geological Survey, Communicated by the Govt. of Bengal, 484 Bedford, J. R. Esq. Bengal Medical Staff, Contribution to the Statistics of Bengal, =. ser oer Blyth, E. Esq. Remarks on the different species of Gente utan, .. 369 Blyth, E. Esq. Notices and ae of various Reptiles, new or little known, «+ o. -. 639 Dalton, T. E. Capt. Account of | a visit ie the J ates and Seesee rivers in Upper Assam, 511 Edgeworth, M. P. Esq. B. C.S. N otes on tier Sources of the Abi Ma or Amoo or Oxus, extracted from the Journal of Mr. Gardiner,.. 431 Abstract of a Journal kept by Mr. Gardiner during his

travels in Central Asia, with a Note and Introduction, viet 2 Description of Mohzarkhala in the Kohistan of the Western Huzara, extracted from the Journal of Mr. Gardiner, es 6888

Fleming, A. Esq. M. D. Assistant Surgeon. Report on the Geolo- gical Structure and Mineral Wealth of the Salt Range in the

Punjab, -. 229, 333, 444 Gubbins, C. Esq. N bed on shes ais at Neakabalipuran, 2. 656 Hannay, Capt. Gold Field of Assam, on OL

Hodgson, B. H. Esq. Caucasian and Aon goliah ffir oe se 26 Indo-Chinese Borderers and their connection with the Hymalyans and Tibetans, a es oe ite 1

vi Index.

| Page Hodgson, B. H. Esq. Sifan and Horsok Vocabularies with another special exposition in the wide range of Mongolidan Affinities and remarks on the lingual and physical characteristics of the Family, 121 Jerdon, F. C. Esq. Madras Medical Service, Reptiles exhibiting the | Peninsula of India, vs - 462, 522 Jackson, W. B. Esq. Vice Phosidlent, natin Saviety: Seal pte in Alto-relievo sent by the Governor General to the Asiatic Society, 139 Layard, F. P. Capt. On the Ancient City of Kansonapuri now called

Rungamutty, ne 281 McClelland, J. Esq. F. L.S. Batannerner of Forest, Tango N its on the discharge of Water by the Irawaddy, ts -- 480

Piddington, H. Esq. President Marine Court, Geometrical measure- ment of the distance from crest to crest of Barometric Waves in a * Cyclone, .. 7 Sipiile rion N ‘uitas on thie New Mineral Rodin, ' Hircine, | 5 oe 209 Rajendralal Mittra, Babu. N ee on an FaNcteos ext Thaneswar, 673 Sherwill, W. S. Capt. Notes upon a Tour in the Sikkim Hymalyan Mountains, undertaken for the purpose of ascertaining the Geolo- gical Formation of Kunchinjinga, and of the perpetually snow-


covered peaks in its vicinity, ». 540;,. 611 Sprenger, A. Esq. On the First saline of fe Original Text of

Been o Fee 198 . Gaeatomuss of Onivatal ihiieatios Fee 2. 535 —_—_—_—— Hindustani Poetry, ie ee -- 442

Young, C. B. Capt. Bengal Engineer. Remarks on the subject. of Laterite found near Rangoon, ae ee o. 196


Page Plate I.—Diagrams of Barometric waves, in a Cyclone, ............ 8 II.—Plate XI. Idro Puncho,........... Puta eetea ne a cincduan Gui nemmacars 140 Ee Ose sareria cise gjcitaiva lunscaal Selawametide Ga velininces oplscinmnaeieea 152 '¥,— Sculpture im Alto Kelievo,.. ......0.ccseussscvccsecssrcsvaesees 193 V.—Geological Sketch Map of Salt Range, .........cc0...cec0 229 VI.—Black stone Image found in the Jumma Talao at Runga- PAUGET - acclans a teasbnas cis atlanta ars agiciale sae tale o'S vistas aiele Cate saVanlalur atonal resis 282 Reb Plate bh, Orangutan head, ..iccc..¢esessssctevesssracdessvovonene 383 See Me reat Ele CHE UOs 5s rc cessie'nspinie siete e wiaidmv's'e qq ou do oterasarsieu tame verwencere 1b. re NE, SON ULOS Nea coe cine si sisiadiale vas destdeas dein saue Sateteve Moawnscae ib. Braet Ve GIGLO ns, decode cr cneancnldece see's ua suea ees sac ranedaaoteonss 1b. Be Plaka Vo GitbOs oot. ceseiemesdesee We chet onan sata skincare ab. Pele late VY. ditties -sccccc cease cusses vee Ah elas eabeNealaeren fain va ea eee eae VLE. ALO) icc.s., oh cu ace sae Seiousiscaicedae sagusuaeneiesvencesss ib. ee latoe V Utes IGOR... Vana v acess cuscstaswetcogeeecuoeeminscascecace ib. Pete LUA. GULUOL 1. ccenssiecs coedipeienc se PU cerlae rei BDO Ce a scloveits 2b. aE ibe SMO NLLO yo ceausnnctars vepneseetcclinbesas tec ssieeaicetied cere: ib Pee IN Oy UW Vablet Of COLOUESS fei. :cecescscsecseccssvecrscececeocce. ence 456 bey Pit.—Section. No. 2, ......ss0c008 “sy OMS TOLD at UR a 457 RINNE eos htiiasincnniaaimliaticaca@ebinac ni ceseeotamonmerica caeeeetcns ib. PRON NOs Ao oiikakteess densouns waniimapesniene Eich Ge Ae ae a ea 458 NIN), GT eae osc ce ete ca eulded Sangiee sie umn aoetioueecedocbins re ab. BE INO. Gy. as ss csc ceeaa eins vege voasns' AED i se aR 459 MUMIA Fft -faee aetna etc cbr tCL vacscuic'n ola cinlcciele onivaiedcemneeas aeauan, MaDe Nee) sericea Ce cere dts cll « dbecisins soy ovwoeshoa Sese cea: SOG TOE NG. 950. scanacse DN 5 AS RS NL te en a 461 eh Noel O 5 ava Be Papreretles Uc waienes ostaeclooeccer sclcaseceineesdaser tbe con ae'e 462 XXVII.—Sketch Map of the Valley of the Great Rungeet River, 540 Pee hk romaimnsot a, 2 armed Tobe iio oicins succcescvesecccceceds 577 XXIX.—Distorted sketch of the Great Singalulah Spur,............ 619 XX X.—Chookor Dongor Mountain Rhubarb, .............00..cceeees 618 Dow XY.— Mahavalipuram’ sliore simple, ......000..0...csssccaesnswensenes 672 XX XII.—Sketch Plan of the Coast of Mahavalipur,.................. 2b.

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Errata in No. III. of 1853 of the Journal of the Asiatic Society in the Paper entitled—

Report on the Geological Structure, &c. of the Salt Range in the Punjaub, &c. &c.

Page line 230 9, for Kaffin read Kafiir. 12, for Kovana read Korana. »» for rise read rises. 232 3, for Punchah read Punchal. », 24, for map read mass. », 933, for Kuttba read Kuttha. 233 3, for Chountuah read Chounterah. 10, for Kaffin read Kaffir. 53+ 22, for strata read straths. 234 4, for Vehee read Vahee. », 28, for kurrul read kureel. », 930, for specigera read spicigera. 235 4, for kurul read kureel. 5, for chenopodiacious read chenopodiaceous.. 6, for java read lana. 28, for Kuringurli read Kuringuli. », 29, for Katass read Kutass. », for Kuhun read Kahun. 9, 92, for Kuhor read Kuhar. », 232, for ditto read ditto. 236 11, for lakes read lake. pS », for any read very. », 13, for Nunva read Nurwa. », 24, for Khubakkie read Khubukkie. re », for Lone Lihesur read Sone Sikesur. », 27, for ditto read ditto. », 28, for inland read inclosed. 32, for Lihesur read Sikesur. 237 17, for Europeans read European. 238 20, for Marie read Maree. » 28, for Lurdi read Surdi. 239 ~=2, from foot for bottoms read bottom, 241 11, for Milawan read Nilawan. 242 14, for trappian read trappean. », 21, for Kemah read Keurah, 244 5, from bottom for thin read their.. 246 4, for roots read roofs. 9, for salt read mineral and. », 21, for strifes read strikes. », 25, for Kalibay read Kalibag, »» 29, for Marree read Maree. 249 11, for Sugaswalla read Sujeewalla. i », Jor efforts read effects. 250 22, for give their read give to their. », 24, insert a point after through it. a », for wherever read Wherever. », 26, for seem to be read seem to lie. 252 399, for Gredi read Grechi. » 18, for up to the read up the.



line 2 and 3, for on the scarped read or the scarped.”” 4, for Vevhalee read Vuhalee. 11, for Vusual read Vusnal. 24, for to be most read to be a most. 34, for calcarious read calcareous. 25, for this concretion read these concretions. 8, for copper, as read copperas, 32, for Bayaar read Bazaar. 13, for Poonah read Boonah. 14, for Imapore read Surafur. 15, for Gurjah read Gurjak. 20, for mount read mounts. »» for Drengum read Drengun. 5, for where read whence. 1, for Kaffee read Kaffir. »» for Dak read Dok. 5, for A lower limestone, &c. read ‘* A Lower limestone, &c.’’ in italics, 3, from foot for on read of. 11, for magnesia read magnesian. 16, for Zinnanee read Zamanee. +5 for Chederos read Chederoo. 21, for Nummaal read Nummul. 31, for Zimanee read Zamanee. 30, for and intercalated read and are intercalated. 14, for shales read slabs. 23, for Salira read Lalira. 11, for seas read lias. 23, for M. de Verueuil read M. de Verneuil. 24, for Cara read Cora. 32, for ditto read ditto. 14, for Sam Sikesur read Sone Sikesur, 21, for Mulakhail read Mulokhail. 25, for Dak read Dok. 28, for Soohinam read Sooliman. 2, for Umlakhail read Mulokhail. 8, for ditto read ditto. 27, for this read the. 34, for Jamieson read Jameson. 9 and 10, for connected with read converted into. 1, for Musakhail read Mulokhail. 9, for block hard read black band. 13, for Kuneegoornul read Kuneegoorum. 25, for Pecoptaris read Pecopteris. 32, for Pecteus read Pectens, 3, for osselit read osselet. 6, for concave or convex read concavo-convex. 7, for thin read their. 9, for a disc read each disc. 7, for crustacian read crustacean.

last line for throw out read then out, A. FLEMING.

Dera Ghazee Khan, Augt, 22nd, 1853.

Errata in Vol. XXII. for 1853, (Nos. 3, 4 & 5) of the Journal of Asiatic Society, in the paper entitled Report on the Geological Structure, Sc. of the Salt Range in the Punjaub, Se.”

Page line 258 18, for Soda read Lead. 334 30, for Likesur read Sikesur. 335 36, for thin read their. .. 937, for Kathee read Kotkee, 336 2, for Chotab read Chotah, re 3, for Soan read Loon. $5 » for Marie read Maree. an 6, for Ral read Rol. », 205, for ditto read ditto. 337 17, for Jumsan read Jumsau. », 20, for apparance read appearance. », 2%, for devoid read derived. 338 8, for Jumsan read Jumsau. 27, for Cents. read Cwts. », 29, for Kathee read Kotkee. 339 3, for Jumsan read Jumsau. », 16, for Kathee read Kotkee. » 20, for Jumsan read Jumsau. 340 5, for ditto read ditto. 341 8, for clay sandstone read claystone. -,, 16, for sandstone read sandstones. 342 15 for Shob read Shah, » 383, for Rhutlum read Ruttibun. 343 11, for Kurrah read Keurah. 14, for Taber read Tober. , », 94, for Demdhote read Dimdhote. 344 13, for Kurrumea Wou read Kurrumee Wan. 28, for Kathee read Kotkee, » 932, for ditto read ditto. 345 3, for ditto read ditto. : 29, insert a point after coal, . ,», for small read Small. 346 10, for Kathee read Kotkee, » 293, for ditto read ditto, 347 =1, for ditto read ditto. ae 9, for Brattenberg read Beattenberg. ,, 16, for ditto read ditto. 349 =. 2, for coating read luting. » 14, for Fascialites read Fasciolites. » 16, for Aeritina read Neritina. 350 14, for when read where, » 29, for Gharigulla read Ghorigulla, », 94, for ditto read ditto, as ,, for Bulerala read Bukrala. 351 7, for Sam read Sone. 5, 90, for identified read identical. 352 3, for Moochpoor read Mochpoora. 354 2, for Buhrala read Bukrala, 355 13, for Kuttree read Puttree. »» oo, for with read into, 357 ~—4, for Carapax read Carapace. » 13, for endogenous read exogenous. », 24, for eastward read east. ,, 36, for formed read forced. 358 15, for axis read axes, » 24, for Sekesur read Sikesur.


Page line 33, for 2113 feet. Above read 2113 feet above. » 04, after Maree insert a point. ,, for looking read looking, and omit ; after summit, 360 11, for grove read zone.

», 15, after mountains insert would. 363 17, for alluvion read alluvium.

», 22, for Siberian read Silurian.

» 24, for hard read hand.

366 36, for oolitics read oolites.

367 =. 2, for 18° read 180°.

ie 5, for Kothee read Kotkee,

368 15, for Kurum read Koorum.

», 20, for fossil read fossils. 445 8, for pelu read peelu.

» 9 for mud read mudar.

», 13, for as read so.

446 15 and 16, for detritic read dentritic.

447 9, for vein read veins.

» 98l, for Gurjok read Gurjak. 448 2, for Leyden read Seyden.

" 5, for Dhur read Dhar,

x 8, for Soue read Sone,

a 9, for Moosoul read Moosral.

» 19, for 4,493 read 493.

», 40, for render read renders, 449 9, for Kothee read Kotkee.

», 19, for Lingasun read Singasun.

», 22, for Atub read Amb. 451 24, for rock read rack,

452 18, for Deooman Rocks read Devonian Rocks in italics. », 30, for Kerah read Keurah. 453 11, for Mukraih read Mukrach.

», 20, for Arub read Amb.

» 25 and 26, for glame read glance.

» 94, after Agate insert ........ cece

» 4 and 35, Carboniferous Rocks, &c. in italics. 454 17, Oolitic Secondary Rocks, &e. in italics, »». 21, for Shah read Shales.

», Al, for Intana read Jutana,

456 12, after Lower Silurian or Cambrian Rocks insert ? 457 13, for maps read mass.

»» 20, for Kuhar read Kuhan. 33, for ditto read ditto.

458 4, for Hoona read Hoon, A. FLEemine,

Chuprah, 26th January, 1854,



Note by the Editors.

The two following papers by Mr. Hodgson were, with a third, which will appear in the next No. of the Journal, nearly prepared for issue in. the early part of last year (1852), when they were recalled by the author,, who desired more fully to amplify and digest his matter, with reference to his rapidly increasing information and larger access to books.

Illness, however, having now compelled Mr. Hodgson to suspend his investigations and repair to Kurope for the renovation of his health, the Editors conceive that the publication of the papers should be no longer put off, and they are accordingly now printed with the author’s assent. The important comparative list of Caucasian and Mongolian vocables has received considerable additions.

On the Indo-Chinese Borderers and their connexion with the Himéd- layans and Tibetans— By B. H. Hopeson, Esq.

To the Secretary Asiatic Society.

Srz,—In further prosecution of my purpose of recording in the pages of our Journal a complete set of comparative vocabularies on an uniform plan, I have now the honour to transmit to you two fresh series, one for Arrakan, and the other for the Tenasserim provinces. The first comprises six tongues, viz., the Burmese, the Khyeng, the Kami, the Kimi, the Mri and the Sak; the second, five, viz., the Burmese, the Talien, the Tang-lhu, the Shan and the Siamese.

It is needless, I presume, to apologise for thus recording provincial dialects of well known languages such as the Burmese and Siamese,

No. LVILI.—NeEw Series. Vol. XXII. B

2 On the Indo-Chinese borderers. [ No. 1.

because such deviations of a known kind afford inestimable means of testing those which are unknown, and of thus approximating to a just appreciation of the interminable varieties of speech, that characterise the enormously extended family of the Mongolide.

I am indebted for these vocabularies to Captain Phayre whose name is a warrant for their authenticity, and who has kindly added to their value by the subjoined explanatory note upon the Arrakan tribes. On those of the Tenasserim provinces the only elucidatory addition is the important one that the Ting-lhu are Hillmen,”’ that is, dislocated aborigines driven to the wilds, or, in other words, broken and dispersed tribes, like the Khyeng and Kami and Kumi and Mra and Sak of Arrakan, whose vocables constitute the greatest part of the first half of the vocabularies herewith forwarded.

In the course of recording in our Journal these numerous vocabu- laries, I have purposely avoided any remarks on the affinities they suggest or demonstrate, intending to take up that subject when they should be completed: but the high interest* excited by my Himé- Jayan series, in connexion with the bold and skilful researches which are now demonstrating the unparalleled diffusion over the earth of that branch of the human family to which the Himalayans belong, has induced me on the present occasion to deviate partially from that rule and to at once compare Captain Phayre’s Arrakanese vocables with my own Himalayan} and Tibetan ones. Having been so. for- tunate as lately to procure an ample Sifanese series, comprising the tongues of the several peoples bordering on China and Tibet between Kokontr and Yunan, and having moreover made some progress in & careful analysis of a normal and of an abnormal sample of the Himé- layan tongues, with a view to determining the amounts of the Turdnian and Arian elements, I shall ere long find occasion to reeur to the general affinities of the Indian Mongolide. In the meanwhile the subjoined comparison of several Arrakanese tongues with those of Tibet and of the Eastern Himalaya will be read with surprise and pleasure by many who, accustomed to regard the Himalayans as Hindus, and the Indo-Chinese, like the Chinese, as distinct from the

* Latham’s History of Man and Ethnology of British Colonies. + My own Himalayan series will be found in the Journal, No. 185 for Dec. 1847. The Arracanese series is annexed hereto.

1853. ] On the Indo-Chimese borderers. 3

people of Asie Centrale, and from the Tibetans, will be astonished to find one type of language prevailing from the Kali to the Koladan, and from Ladakh to Malacca, so as to bring the Himilayans, Indo- Chinese and Tibetans into the same family.

That such, however, even in the rigid ethnological sense, is the fact will hardly be denied by him who carefully examines the sub- joimed table, or the documents from which it is taken, because not only are the roots of the nouns and verbs similar to identity, but the servile particles are so likewise, and that as well in themselves as in the uses made of them, and in the mutations* to which they are liable. It should be added that the resemblances cited are drawn not from “ransacked dictionaries” but from vocabularies of less than 300 words for each tongue.

To those who, not content with this abstract, shall refer to the original documents, I may offer two remarks suggested by their study to myself. 1st, The extraordinary extent to which the presently contemplated affinities holds good, has been made out by the helps afforded by the series of cognate tongues, whereby the synonyma defective in one tongue are obtained from another, whilst the varying degrees and shades of deviation are a clue to the root or basis.t 2nd, The other remark suggested by the comparison of the vocabularies is, that it is the nouns and verbs, and not the pronouns and numerals, which constitute the enduring part of these languages ; and that consequently, whatever may be the case in regard to the Arian group of tongues, we must not always expect to find the best evidence of family connexion in regard to the Turanian languages among the pronouns and numerals. Indeed the confused character of these parts of speech seems to be a conspicu- ous feature of the Mongolian tongues.

* In order to appreciate this remark and to trace the elements of the vocables, see analytic observations of the following paper on Caucasian and Mongolian words, appended to the list of those words.

~ Take the radical word for dog, as asample. We have khyi, khia, khi, ki, khwé, kwé, kwi, ka, ki-cha, ki-cha, khé, kyé, cho-i. For the appended particles and their mutations I must refer to the original documents, and to the future con- firmations to be supplied by my Sifanese series of words.

B 2

4 On the Indo-Chinese borderers. [No..1.

Comparison of Tibetan and Himdlayan tongues on one hand, and of the Indo-Chinese on the other.

Blood.—Thak in Bhotia, Thyak in Lhépa, Vi in Lepcha.* Thwé in Burmese, Thé in Sak, Ka-thi in Khyeng, A-ti in Kami, Wiin Mri. Boat.—Thiu in Sérpa. Thé in Burmese. Cat.—Si-mi in Bhotia, Si-mi in Sokpa. Min in Khyeng, Min in Kami. Crow.—O’-la in Lhépa, A-wé in Limbu. O’-4 in Kimi, W4 4 in Kami and in Mri. Day.—Nyi-ma in Bhotia, Nhi in Newari, Nyim in Lhopa. in Burmese, Ni in Mri. Dog.—Khyi in Bhotia, Khi in Lhdpa, Ku-chii in Kiranti, Ki-cha in Newari, Khia in Dhimali. Khwé in Burmese, Ta-kwi in Mri, Ku in Sék. Ear.—Na in Bhotia, Na-vo in Lhépa. Na in Burmese, Ka-né in Sak. Hye.—Mig in Bhotia, A-mik in Lepcha, Mo in Murmi and Guring. Myé-tsi in Burmese, A-mi in Kami and Sak, Min in Mri. Father.—Pha in Bhotia, Amba in Limbu. Pha é in Burmese, Ampa in Kimi. Fire.—Meé or Mi in Bhotia, and in all Himalayan tongues. Mi, Ma, Mai in Burmese, K4mi and Mri. Fish—Nya in Bhotia, Ngya in Lhopa, Ngé in Lepcha, Nyau in Sinwar. Nga in Burmese, Neti in Khyeng, Ngho in Kami. Foot.—Kéng in Bhotia, Kang in Lhopa, Khwe-li in Sinwar. Khyé in Burmese, K4-k6 in Khyeng, Khou in Kimi. Goat.—Ra in Bhotia. Ta-ra in Mri. Hair.—A-chém in Lepcha, Chim in Magar. A-sham in Kami, Sh4m in Mri and Kumi. Head.—G6 in Bhotia. Ghong in Burmese.

* The first line gives the northern series, the second the southern.

1853. | On the Indo-Chinese borderers. 5

Hog.—Phak in Bhotia and Lhépa and Kiranti, Wak in Magar. Ta-pak in Mru and Vak in Sak.

Horn.—Ar-kyok in Sérpa, A-réng in Lepcha. A kyi in Khyeng, A-riing in Sak.

Horse.—Ta4 in Bhotia and Lhopa, Sa la in Newari. T4-phi (phu male suffix) in Kami, Sapi in Sak (pti idem).

House.—Khyim in Bhotia and Lepcha. Yum in Magar. Kyim in Sak, Kim in Mri; Um in Kimi.

Man.—Mi in Bhotia and most Himalayan tongues, Maro in Lepcha,

Muri in Sinwar.

Ka-mi in Kémi, Mri in Mri dialect. (Ka-mi in Newari means crafts-man).

Moon.—14-va in Bhotia, Lhépa, Lepcha, &ec. &e. La in Burmese and Khyeng, Pui-la in Mra.

Mountain.— Gin in Newari. Ta-kin in Kami.

Name.—Ming in Bhotia and Lhopa and Limba and Mirmi, Nang in Newari. 3 A-mi in Burmese, A-min in Kami, Na-mi in Khyeng.

Night.—Sa-nap in Lepcha. Nya in Burmese.

Oil.—Si-di in Magar. Shi in Burmese and Kami and Mri, Si-dak in Sak.

Road.—Lam in Bhotia and all the Himalayan tongues. Lam in Burmese, Khyeng, Kami, and Sak.

Salé—Tshé in Bhotia and Lhdpa, Chha in Himalayan tongues

(most) Sing in Bodo.*

Sha in Burmese, T'si in Khyeng, Sang in Sak.

Skin.— Pa-ko in Lhopa, Dhi in Gurting, Di in Murmi.

; in Kimi, Pi in Mri.

Sky.—M4 in Mirmi, Min in Gurtng. Miu in Mra, Mo in Burmese.

* My Bodo and Dhimal vocabularies will be found in the Journal as well as the Himalayan series. I take this occasion to intimate my now conviction that the Bodo, Dhim4l and Kocch tribes belong to the Tibetan and Himalayan stock rather than to the Tamilian; that is, with reference to India, to the more recent race of Tartar immigrants, not to the more ancient and more altered.

6 On the Indo-Chinese borderers. [No. 1.

Snake.—Bul in Magar, Bu-sa in Sinwar. Phil in Khyeng, Pa-vi in Kumi. Stone.—Long in Lepcha, Ling in Limbi, Lhing in Magar. Lin in Khyeng, Ka-lin in Kami, Ta-lin in Sak. In the verbs, again, we have EHat.—Sa in Lhoépa, Zo, 8d, in Bhotia, Ché in Limbi, Cho in Keranti. Sa in Burmese, T's4 in Kami, Tsa in Kimi. Drink.—Thing in Bhotia, Thong in Lhopa, Thing in Limba and Mirmi, &e. Thouk in Burmese. Sleep.—Tp in Stnwar, Ip in Limbi, Im in Kiranti. Yp in Khyeng, I in Kami, ? in Kumi. Laugh.—Yé in Limbu, Nyé in Mirmi, Nhyé in Newari. in Burmese, A-nwi in Khyeng, Am-nhwi in Kimi. Weep.—Nu, ng, in Bhotia, nga in Lhdépa and Sérpa, Khw6é in Ne- wari. Neg6é in Burmese, and Kha in Kami. Say, tell—Shéd in Bhotia. Sho in Burmese. Come.— Wa in Newari. Va in Kami. -Go.—Lau in Sinwar. La in Kami and in Kimi. Sit down.— Det in Serpa, Ngu-na in Magar. Tat in Kimi, Ngin-gé in Khyeng. Move, Walk.—Dyii in Lhépa. Kyt in Burmese. Run.—Chong in Sérpa, Loyé in Kiranti. Cho-né in Khyeng, Lei in Kimi. Give.—Bin in Bhotia and Lhépa, Pi in Limb, Pai in Kiranti, Pen in Giring. in Burmese, in Khyeng, Pei in Kimi. (Na pt in Kami—Nang in Bhotia asks for self.) Take.—Ya in Bhotia, Lyo in Lepcha, in Limba. Yd in Burmese, Léa in Kami, in Kimi. Kull,—Thod in Guiring, That in Bédé. That in Burmese.

1853. ] On the Indo-Chinese borderers. 7

Hear, attend—Nyen in Bhotia and Lhdpa and Lepcha, Nyo in Newari. in Khyeng, Ka-né-i, in Kami.

Remark, the materials for the above striking comparative view are derived from my own original vocabularies for the northern tongues, as published in the Journal No. 185, for December 1847, and from Capt. Phayre’s for the southern tongues, hereto appended.

Tt is seldom that vocabularies so trustworthy can be had, and had in series, for comparison; and yet it is abundantly demonstrable that every thing in regard to the discovery of the larger ethnic affinities of dispersed races depends upon such a presentation of these materials, the distinction of. roots and of servile particles,